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Chinese medicine has certain advantages and efficacy in treating endometriosis and promoting conception. Endometriosis falls under the categories of "dysmenorrhoea", "obstruction", "infertility", and "menstrual disorders" in Chinese medicine. These conditions have a long history of recognition in Chinese medicine. For example, the ancient Chinese medical text Huangdi Neijing first introduced the name of female infertility, and the later ancient medical text Jin Kui Yao Zi (The Essentials of the Golden Horoscope) was the first to record the symptoms of dysmenorrhoea. And the differentiation between obstruction and pregnancy and formulated several famous prescriptions for the treatment of obstruction and dysmenorrhoea, such as Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan, Da Huang Eupolyphaga Wan, Jiang Wan, Xie Yu Blood Stasis Soup, Hong Lan Hua Wine, Wen Menstruation Soup and Tu Gua Gen San. In the book "Treatise on the Origin of the Diseases" by Chao Shi Yuanfang, the first time the symptom of "pain in the abdomen when the menstrual water comes" was clearly stated causes and mechanisms of dysmenorrhoea were discussed. In the Tang dynasty, Sun Simiao's book "The Essential Formula of the Thousand Jewels for Urgency" proposed an internal formula for the treatment of female infertility, Zi Shi Men Dong Wan, and an external remedy, Dang Cuo Tang. Chinese medicine has a wealth of experience in the treatment of endometriosis, which is characterised by various clinical conditions. In addition to internal medication, there are also external medication, acupuncture and massage, which have certain advantages and efficacy in reducing symptoms and promoting conception without surgery.

Modern medicine defines endometriosis as viable endometrial tissue growth in a location other than the uterine cavity, causing a range of clinical symptoms. Ectopic endometriosis can metastasise and implant distantly and can occur in many parts of the body. Still, most ectopic sites are in the pelvis, with approximately 80% of endometriosis involving the ovaries. The patient's pelvic organs are extensively adherent. The fallopian tubes are incompetent, distorted or peristaltic, which is detrimental to the expulsion and uptake of eggs and the movement of pregnant eggs and can also cause up to 40% of infertility endometriosis due to complications with unruptured follicular luteinisation syndrome.

The treatment of endometriosis in Chinese medicine was mainly prescribed in ancient medical texts for different clinical conditions, such as dysmenorrhoea, infertility, syndromes and menstrual irregularities. Chen Ziming, a doctor of the Song Dynasty, in his book "The Complete Guide to Good Recipes for Women", formulated a formula for treating dysmenorrhoea by warming the menstrual flow and dispersing cold, invigorating the Blood and removing blood stasis. The medicinal properties are smooth but not too harsh. Through numerous clinical observations and experimental studies, modern medical practitioners believe that endometriosis's primary pathogenesis is the accumulation of blood stasis in the abdomen and the blockage of the ramifications, resulting in the imbalance of qi and Blood and the malfunction of the uterus and cellular ligaments.

According to the different symptoms of endometriosis, for the type with liver and kidney deficiency, use Wu Zi Nourishing Kidney Pill in combination with Tao Hong Si Wu Tang.  For the type with stagnation in the less abdominal area, use Shao Abdominal Expelling Stasis Tang; for the type with the stagnation of dampness, use Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan in combination with Wu Wei Disinfecting Drink. In the dialectical selection of medicine, special attention is paid to the relationship between benefiting the kidney and invigorating the Blood. From a pathological point of view, the periodic bleeding from the ectopic endometrium is "blood away from the menstruum", accumulating over time and becoming an obstruction. Since Yang energy helps to transport Blood and water, and the uterus' menstrual blood depends on the infusion of the channels and meridians, if the kidney yang is insufficient, the meridians will be weak. The menstrual Blood will be more likely to accumulate.  The formation of "blood obstruction" is closely related to Yang energy, which is in line with the Chinese medicine principle that "long-standing illnesses are often deficient" and "long-standing illnesses affect the kidneys". This is in line with the theory that "prolonged illnesses cause deficiency" and "prolonged illnesses affect the kidneys". Tonifying the Kidneys and resolving blood stasis not only changes the degree of dysmenorrhoea and its related symptoms: lumbar soreness, stomach coldness, pale tongue and thin pulse, but also significantly speeds up the recovery of ovarian function. It can regulate the endocrine function to regulate menstruation and promote pregnancy in cases of infertility due to anovulation or luteal failure. From the perspective of herbal medicine, attention should be paid to clearing internal stasis and changing the state of Qi and blood flow in the lower jiao due to internal Qi blockage.  In benefiting the kidneys, emphasis should be placed on warming the kidneys and benefiting Qi to nourish the irregular menstruation.  In the premenstrual period, emphasis should be placed on clearing internal stasis and helping the kidneys. During the ovulation period, attention should be paid to warming the kidneys and nourishing Yang to ensure Yang Qi's level in the body.

Anovulation accounts for about 29% of all infertility cases. Most of these women are infertile for a long time, have delayed menstruation, thinning hair, hirsutism, obesity and even amenorrhoea. Some have cystic enlargement of the ovaries bilaterally, and some have back pain and dizziness. There are both primary and secondary causes, but primary cases are more common.

Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment

1. Yin deficiency and fire: Menstruation is still expected, or premenstrual, or in small amounts. The body is emaciated, with prolonged infertility, lumbago, palpitations, insomnia, and feverishness of the five hearts, with a slightly red tongue, thin yellow fur and fine pulse. Treatment: Nourishing Yin, tonifying the kidneys and regulating menstruation and seeds. Prescription: Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan with addition and reduction, to be taken on the 2nd day after menstruation. If there is no pregnancy, take after the next menstruation.

2. Liver stagnation and blood stasis: delayed menstruation or irregular menstruation, poor menstrual flow, low volume, purple and black colour, blood clots, abdominal pain, irritability before menstruation, dark tongue with purple spots, string veins. Treatment: Nourish Yin and tonify the kidneys, resolve blood stasis and relieve depression. Take Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan plus Dang Gui and Regulate Menstruation Pill in the same way as before. For patients with scanty menstruation or amenorrhea, take without waiting for the onset of menstruation, provided that early pregnancy is excluded.

3. Yang deficiency with phlegm: Infertility after marriage, delayed menstruation, scanty menstruation, amenorrhoea, body fat, lumbar soreness and weakness, indifferent sexual desire, dull complexion, pale tongue with white fur and sunken pulse. Treatment: Nourish Yin, warm the kidneys and tonify the flushes. Most patients in this group do not have menstruation, and the ultrasound indicates that the endometrium is not thick. The patient can take 10 to 30 doses of Chinese herbal soup and then be treated with Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan plus reduction and Dang Gui Menstruation Pill.

Although conception is a complex physiological process, ovulation is a necessary condition for fertility. According to Western medicine, there are two reasons for this type of anovulation: firstly, psychological factors put the body in a stressful state, disrupting the function of the central nervous system and the hypothalamus, affecting the endocrine regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, causing obstruction of follicle development and ovulation dysfunction. Secondly, in polycystic ovary syndrome, the menstrual regulation mechanism is malfunctioning, and the LH/FSH ratio is higher than normal, resulting in excessive production of androgens and a corresponding decrease in oestrogen, leading to anovulation. According to TCM, anovulatory infertility is associated with kidney deficiency. The kidney is the root of the innate essence, the root of the vital energy, and the reservoir of sperm, which is responsible for the reproduction of twins. Insufficient endowment, deficiency of kidney qi, deficiency of the flush and cold, and loss of nourishment of the cellular chakra prevent the intake of sperm for conception. Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan is made up of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan with Zhi Mu and Huang Bai, and is intended to treat Yin deficiency and fire, as well as hot flushes and bone vapour. However, Liu Wei Di Huang Wan has the effect of nourishing Yin and tonifying the kidneys. In contrast, Zhi Mu and Huang Bai affect clearing heat and fire, nourishing Yin and moistening dryness, and are not cloying. Together with Danggui and Menstruation Pill, they can fill the essence, tonify the Blood, benefit the kidney, invigorate the Blood, and regulate menstrual seeds. Through the author's observation, there have been many cases of pregnancy in anovulatory infertility treated with Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan or with Dang Gui Menstrual Regulating Pill with the addition and subtraction of evidence. In these patients, menstruation is normal or slightly delayed. These patients have a normal or slightly delayed menstruation and do not take much medication to conceive.

In some cases, the follicles grow but do not ovulate after taking Zhi Bai Di Huang Pills, but the basal body temperature may rise after taking Angelica Sinensis Pills. For those with low oestrogen, Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan and Dang Gui Menstrual Pill's formula did not result in pregnancy, but they became pregnant after taking the herbal soup internally. In some cases, although pregnancy did not occur, the basal body temperature became biphasic after treatment. Experience has shown that Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan's formula, which is added and reduced according to the symptoms, has the effect of promoting follicle growth and ovulation. The formula of Dang Gui Regulating Menstruation Pill has the effect of regulating menstruation and promoting ovulation, and the formula of Chinese medicine taken internally has the effect of raising estrogen.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects ovulation and causes infertility. How does polycystic ovary syndrome develop? How can acupuncture be used to treat this condition? Is there any hope of pregnancy?

Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the causes of infertility in women and is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women of childbearing age. In recent years, many women of adolescent and childbearing age have encountered a problem. They first find that their menstrual cycle has suddenly become disordered, with a monthly period gradually turning into a month and a half, two months, and later even three months to six months without coming.

To treat polycystic ovarian syndrome caused infertility, the focus is on ovulation promotion, and the key to ovulation promotion is kidney tonification. The two primary steps are to promote follicular maturation and ovulation according to the different follicular development stages in the menstrual cycle. The kidney's essence needs to be gradually enriched by the yang energy in the kidney to promote the maturation of the follicles. During and after ovulation, i.e. 16 days after the menstrual cycle, the follicles gradually mature, which is when the Qi and Blood in the kidneys are transformed into Blood.

For the treatment of blood stasis, phlegm blockage and heat in the liver and gall bladder, we use invigorating Blood to remove blood stasis, resolving phlegm and clearing heat in the liver and gall bladder. Because the liver and kidney are of the exact origin, a deficiency in the kidney does not nourish the liver wood, and a loss of circulation in the liver leads to depression, leading to heat. If the liver is depressed, the liver wood does not clear the spleen and earth, the spleen loses its health and movement, and phlegm and dampness are blocked.

Acupuncture for infertility

In combination with acupuncture therapy, it fills the kidney essence, regulates the qi and Blood of the rhizome and nourishes the uterus so as to adjust the balance of Yin and Yang of the body so that the kidney-tengui-rhizome axis can function normally and restore the normal ovulation function in coordination with the Chinese medicine to promote ovulation. Modern research has confirmed that acupuncture can cause changes in certain nuclei and transmitters in the brain, adjusting hypothalamic function to promote ovulation and increasing the peak of luteinising hormone formation. This restores the normal ovulatory function of the ovaries. Once the body can regulate ovulation automatically, then menstruation will arrive as scheduled, and there will be hope for pregnancy.

Acupuncture is based on tonifying the kidney and filling the essence, draining the liver and Qi, resolving phlegm and dispelling dampness: the abdominal points of the Ren, Kidney, Spleen and Stomach meridians and the dorsal points of the Bladder meridian are selected as the main points, while the abdominal points of the Ren Meridian, Qi Hai, Guan Yuan, Zhong Gui and Shui Shui are used to strengthen the Spleen and Stomach, resolve dampness, move stagnation and benefit Qi. The four acupuncture points are located in the lower jiao and the uterus, which together strengthen the spleen and transform dampness, warm the true essence, and tonify the flushes.  Take the dorsal points of the bladder meridian on the back, Kidney Yu and Spleen Yu, as the spleen is responsible for transporting water and dampness and is the source of phlegm. At the same time, the kidney collects essence, reproduction and water, and are combined with Di Yu, Liver Yu, San Jiao Yu and Guan Yuan Yu. Synergise the effects.


The causes of infertility are complex, and abnormalities in either sex can cause infertility. Infertility can be treated as a separate disease, but it is a consequence of various conditions. For example, some menstrual disorders, postpartum disorders and pelvic inflammatory disease can all lead to infertility. Menstrual disorders are significant. As the ancients said, "If you are not allowed to have your period, you will not conceive." "Therefore, the treatment of menstrual diseases is an essential aspect of preventing and treating infertility.

Some of the diseases that cause infertility are very suitable for Chinese medicine treatment in terms of treatment. For example, dysmenorrhoea in women and most functional disorders in men, for which TCM is unique and advantageous.

It has been recorded in Chinese medicine books over the ages that women are infertile because of kidney deficiency, blood deficiency, coldness in the uterus. Depression of Liver Qi, coldness in the spleen and stomach, phlegm and dampness, disease of the Ren and Du, blood stasis and "five infertile women", among which kidney deficiency, liver depression and qi stagnation, phlegm and dampness and blood stasis are the most common causes.

Kidney deficiency and infertility: According to Chinese medicine, the kidney is the main reservoir of the essence, which is transformed into qi, and the essence in the kidney dominates the growth, development and reproduction of the human body. It is the basis for conception. Therefore, infertility is most closely related to kidney deficiency. Kidney deficiency is divided into kidney qi deficiency, kidney yang deficiency and kidney yin deficiency.

1, Kidney Qi deficiency: Mostly due to congenital disabilities in endowment, kidney Qi is not complete, or due to lack of restraint in intercourse, which damages kidney Qi, resulting in a deficiency of essence and Blood and loss of nourishment of the uterus and veins, which prevents the intake of the essence for pregnancy.

2. Kidney Yang deficiency: Mostly due to lack of innate endowment, or long term illness and injury to the kidneys, or invasion of cold and dampness during menstruation, which damages kidney Yang and causes coldness in the uterus, resulting in the uterus being unable to take in sperm and become pregnant.

The main manifestations are infertility after marriage for a long time, late menstruation, scanty and pale menstruation, scanty menstruation, amenorrhea, dull complexion, lumbar soreness and weakness, indifferent sexual desire, precise and long urine, insubstantial bowel movements, cold abdomen, unheated extremities, pale tongue with white fur, sunken or sluggish pulse. The treatment for kidney-yang deficiency infertility is to warm the kidneys, nourish the Blood and tonify the flushes.

3. Kidney Yin deficiency: Most of the cases are due to the loss of Blood and fluids as a result of labour and childbirth, or the loss of Blood and fluids due to the agitated nature of the body or the greed for spicy food, resulting in the depletion of Yin and Blood, and the loss of nourishment of the veins and the inability to take in sperm for conception.

The main manifestations are infertility after a long marriage, early menstruation, low menstrual flow, or more frequent leakage, dizziness and tinnitus, red cheek and lips, or hot flushes and sweating. Suppose the liver is depressed and the qi is stagnant. In that case, the Blood will also be stagnant, so women who do not ovulate will suffer from menstruation or even amenorrhea and even infertility after marriage. The patient is dizzy and palpitating because of phlegm and dampness, and the patient's chest is stuffy and vicious because of dampness and spleen deficiency.

The treatment should be to relieve the liver and Qi, resolve phlegm and dispel dampness, treat the liver to relieve depression, regulate Blood and regulate menstruation.

The main manifestations are obesity, infertility for many years, delayed menstruation or even amenorrhea, excessive menstruation, fatigue, chest tightness, and dizziness. Chen Pi, Radix Panax, Poria, Atractylodes, Citrus aurantium, and Gallicae Sinensis are commonly used to dry dampness and dissolve phlegm, regulate qi and regulate menstruation.

Blood stasis and infertility: Mostly due to cold, depression, or Qi deficiency, resulting in poor flow of Qi and Blood, stagnation of blood stasis, accumulation in the cells, and blockage of the cells and veins can not take in sperm to become pregnant.

The main manifestations are infertility after a long marriage, delayed menstruation, low volume, dark colour, blood clots, or painful menses.

The treatment of infertility is not only based on the evidence mentioned above but also on the menstrual cycle. In general, it is advisable to tonify the kidneys and help Yang during the premenstrual period, invigorate Blood and regulate menstruation during the menstrual period, and nourish Yin nourish Blood during the late menstrual period.

In short, Chinese medicine and acupuncture have a long history of treating infertility and have obvious advantages, with numerous successful cases. In recent years, Chinese medicine and acupuncture have infiltrated all aspects of modern assisted reproduction techniques and are working well.

Male Infertility

Male infertility is often characterised by soreness and weakness of the waist and knees, fatigue, dizziness, forgetfulness, yellowing of the face, insomnia and dreaminess, indifference to sexual desire, a red tongue with a thin white coating, and a hollow and weak pulse. If the vital fire fails and Yang deficiency is severe, there is a coldness in the body and limbs, impotence and spermatorrhea, and coldness in the scrotum and testicles. Insufficient kidney yin and inflammation of the deficiency fire are accompanied by dry mouth, irritability of the five hearts, panic and impatience, dreaming and premature ejaculation, and ringing in the ears. In kidney deficiency and spleen deficiency cases, the patient may have a yellowish complexion, little breath and lazy speech, and loose stools. For those with Blood stasis blocking the ligaments, there is discomfort and swelling in the scrotum, and the tongue is purple and dark or has stasis spots. In cases where damp heat is also present, there is burning and redness in the scrotum, bitterness in the mouth, yellow urine, yellowish coating and thin and stringent pulse.

The treatment of male infertility should be based on kidney disease, as the kidney is the root of the innate nature.

Male infertility is often characterised by soreness and weakness of the waist and knees, fatigue, dizziness, forgetfulness, yellowing of the face, insomnia and dreaminess, indifference to sexual desire, a red tongue with a thin white coating, and a sunken and weak pulse. If the vital fire fails and Yang deficiency is severe, there is a coldness in the body and limbs, impotence and spermatorrhea, and coldness in the scrotum and testicles. Insufficient kidney yin and inflammation of the deficiency fire are accompanied by dry mouth, irritability of the five hearts, panic and impatience, dreaming and premature ejaculation, and ringing in the ears. In kidney deficiency and spleen deficiency cases, the patient may have a yellowish complexion, little breath and lazy speech, and loose stools. For those with Blood stasis blocking the ligaments, there is discomfort and swelling in the scrotum, and the tongue is purple and dark or has stasis spots. In cases where damp-heat is also present, there is burning and redness in the scrotum, bitterness in the mouth, yellow urine, yellowish coating and thin and stringent pulse.

The treatment of male infertility should be based on kidney disease, as the kidney is the root of the innate nature, harbouring true Yin and containing vital Yang, and is the source of human reproductive development. The kidneys contain sperm, are responsible for reproduction, and are responsible for the two Yin, so male infertility is all about the kidneys. Because the human reproductive function is dependent on the kidney essence, sperm production depends on the moistening and warming of the kidney's Yin and Yang for sperm to maintain normal biochemical functions. If the kidney is deficient and the sperm is weak and cold, infertility will result. Therefore, benefiting the kidney and filling the sperm is the primary method to treat male infertility. In this formula, Xian Ling Spleen and Baji Tian both enter the kidney meridian to warm the kidney and strengthen Yang, and Baji Tian also has the function of raising the kidney energy and stimulating Yang. "The essence deficiency is supplemented by taste. Therefore, fish bladder and deer horn gum are used to nourish and strengthen the flesh and Blood to nourish the kidney and fill the essence.

However, kidney yang deficiency should not be treated with pungent, dry and hot herbs so as not to dry out the Yang and consume the Yin. Otherwise, instead of getting better in terms of sexual desire and impotence, it caused dry mouth and irritability, dizziness and brain swelling. Likewise, for kidney yin deficiency, one should not take delicate water nourishing herbs in order not to bog down Yin and hinder Yang. For Yang deficiency, sweet warmth is beneficial to Qi, while for Yin deficiency, sweetness and moistening strengthen water. The selection of medicine is based on this principle, as the innate kidney essence must be constantly nourished by the spleen and stomach to produce water and grain essence in order to live on. Consider strengthening the Spleen and Stomach's Qi in the latter part of the body when using the medicine. Avoid using spicy, fatty, sweet, smoky and alcoholic products, abstain from sexual intercourse, and often counsel patients so that they can take the initiative to cooperate and not interrupt their medication so that they can be relieved of their mental stress and help improve the effectiveness of the treatment.

Male infertility - varicocele

Varicocele is a common cause of male infertility, accounting for approximately 20% to 42% of cases, significantly higher than the 10% to 16% of the general population. Some statistics show that the incidence is three times higher than that of normal fertile men. Varicocele is a pathology in which the trapezoidal plexus of the spermatic cord becomes dilated, tortuous and elongated due to poor reflux or backflow of Blood caused by damage to the venous valves. The majority of cases occur on the left side, with some occurring bilaterally and rarely on the right side alone. It is often associated with testicular shrinkage, tenderness and histological changes, and abnormal semen examination. The mechanism of infertility due to varicocele has not been fully understood, but it is generally believed that varicocele causes increased testicular temperature, the presence of substances that impair testicular function in the regurgitated Blood of the spermatic cord, altered testicular haemodynamics that affects testicular metabolism and endocrine function, as well as impairment of microcirculation and destruction of the immune barrier in the testis and epididymis. This can lead to histological differences in the testis, including blockage of spermatogenic cells, loss of immature spermatogenic cells to the lumen, interstitial oedema, interstitial vasculopathy, etc. contralateral testicular lesions. Besides, varicocele can lead to shrinkage of the testicular varicocele and hyaline degeneration of the membranes. The clinical manifestations of varicocele are reduced semen quality, abnormal fertility and infertility.

In ancient Chinese medicine, varicocele was not known as a disease but was generally classified as a "tumour", "seminal hernia", or "fall of the spermatocele". The primary pathogenesis is stagnation of Qi and Blood. The clinical manifestations are dilated, tortuous and even twisted veins of the spermatic cord, with visible tendons and a feeling of distension and discomfort. It is usually due to the lack of nourishment of the veins and ligaments, resulting in poor blood flow and accumulation of stagnant Blood, making it difficult for new Blood to come. According to the "Medical Correction", "The veins are exposed, not the tendons, but the blood vessels that are present on the skin. Therefore, the main treatment should be to invigorate blood circulation and remove stasis, with additional reduction according to the symptoms. The treatment should be based on invigorating the Blood and removing stasis so that the external kidneys (testes) can be nourished and the Blood can be transformed into sperm, and fertility can be expected.

Ovarian cysts - infertility

Ovarian cysts are common in gynaecology and can be benign or malignant and can affect people of all ages, but are most common between the ages of 20 and 50. Ovarian cysts are usually referred to as non-neoplastic cysts and are mainly classified as functional cysts, blood clot cysts (chocolate cysts), dermatomal cysts (teratomas), plasma cysts and mucinous cysts. Functional cysts are more common in women of reproductive age, where ovarian follicles fail to mature and turn into cysts, but these cysts usually disappear when menstruation occurs.

Ovarian cysts can manifest themselves as follows: a history of irregular or dysmenorrhoeic menstruation, which is characterised by irregular periods, low volume, dark colour and abdominal pain. Pain in the abdomen, discomfort in the abdomen, increased leucorrhoea, yellowish leucorrhoea, odourful leucorrhoea, menstrual disorders and usually a firm, painless swelling in the abdomen, sometimes with painful intercourse. As the cyst progresses, there may be symptoms such as irregular vaginal bleeding or increased grossness, severe abdominal pain and tenting, breathlessness, reduced appetite, nausea and fever.

If the cysts are not bilateral, pregnancy will not normally be affected because the cysts grow on one ovary and the other ovary can ovulate normally. With the sperm and egg combining and returning to the uterus to lay, so as long as this process is not interfered with, normal conception will not be affected. However, the Yansha girl has bilateral ovarian cysts which may cause infertility.

Ovarian cysts are not clearly documented in ancient Chinese medical texts and are generally classified as "obstruction". According to Chinese medicine, ovarian cysts are mainly caused by the following factors.

(1) Qi and blood stagnation.  The aetiology of this disease is mostly due to wind and cold during menstruation or after childbirth. The cause of this disease is mostly caused by wind and cold during menstruation or after childbirth, or by internal injury to the emotions, depression and liver, resulting in poor flow of qi, stagnation of qi and blood, and stagnation of qi and Blood. If the stasis accumulates over time, it becomes a tumour. The manifestation is usually no obvious symptoms except for a lump in the lower abdomen or only a stasis on the tongue. In malignant cases, the lower abdominal lump is hard and fixed, painful and refuses to be pressed, the skin is not moistened, and the face is purple, and there are petechial spots on the tongue. Patients with advanced malignancy may have ascites, withered form and fatigue.

(2) Phlegm and stagnation of phlegm and stagnation of Blood. Long-term accumulation of phlegm and blood stagnation can also lead to tumours. In addition to the above symptoms of stagnation of Qi and Blood, patients often have the fullness of the stomach and epigastrium, panic, shortness of breath, poor appetite, swelling, vomiting, tenderness, thickening of the abdominal circumference, menstrual disorders, difficulty in urination, urgency to defecate or irregular bowel movements, fullness of the lower abdomen or fossa, and a feeling of falling.

Therefore, Chinese medicine treats it by moving Qi and dispersing knots, warming the meridians and clearing the channels, and activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis.


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